top of page

Camera For Children

DNB202 Product Usability (first year university)

Camera for children aged between 7-12 years

SHADE SAILS AND STRUCTURES

SHADE SAILS AND STRUCTURES
ORIEL PARK
Company: Advanced Shade Systems Pty Ltd
Location: Capalaba, QLD, Australia
Client: Brisbane City Council
Funding: $xxxm (or leave out)
Year: 2018
Role: Design Consultant
Sectors: Public Transport, Commercial, Signage and Wayfinding
Project Website: XXX
Project Scope/Brief: XXX

Context
- client
- Project size/complexity
- Team size/ who else you worked with etc
- your contribution or focus

Insights into your perspective on the project:
- What you love, enjoyed, were able to show
- Challenges, how you overcome these, resolved issues
- what you learnt
what would you do differently, how would you approach

design process in image selction
insight into process, context and thinking    

bid tender and project 
GHD and GHDWoodhead
swap out logos

PROJECT NAME:

 

CLIENT:

 

LOCATION

PROJECT TIMELINE

PROJECT TEAM

 

BUDGET

PROJECT SCOPE

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

DESIGN PROCESS

DESIGN OUTCOME

LEARNING EXPERIENCES

 

During my time at Advanced Shade Systems (2018-2019), I designed various types of shade sails and structures. One of them was a custom cantilever shade structure, for Brisbane City Council at Oriel Park. 

The design process included sketching concepts of how the structure will look like using the measurements given by the client. Then modeling it in Sketchup and creating shop drawings to be engineered by a structural engineer, then manufactured locally. There were a few iterations to the drawings to make sure the parts fit together and are durable. 

 

As the aged population grows, mobility and accessibility demand will increase significantly in the next two decades. Having access to transport is essential for quality of life, especially for the disabled. As there is a lack of communication between the aged disabled people and transport services and difficulty to embark and disembark buses. Projected to be used by 2030, XLO is an interactive screen imbedded into smart bus stops and located at the entry of large bus stations. Users can scan their go-card to pay their fare, access travel updates, update their profile, plan journey, add money, have assistance with navigation and improve the communication between the passenger and driverless bus and transport service.

XLO aims to help the disabled elderly to allow them to notify the driverless bus and transport staff that they need assistance embarking and disembarking the vehicle and what type of assistance, during their journey at certain locations. The need for XLO is that it helps users, especially who need special requirements to plan and receive adequate assistance for their travel journey. When planning ahead, the users notify the driverless bus if they need any assistance, such as wheelchair ramps access, walking sticks and to receive physical assistance if necessary. This feature is on the screen interface can also be used for mothers with prams or for anyone other than the disabled elderly for different requirements. The users can link their Go-Card profile to XLO, where they can have specific requirements entered that the users need. This allows staff and the driverless bus to prepare automatic wheelchair ramps and assistance when disembarking.

The main feature is the touch screen interface. This is where the user will be interacting with the most at the beginning of their travel journey. The screen in imbedded into the smart bus stop, with speakers for audio, NFC scanner for Go-Cards and credit cards and ticket printing machines. The XLO smart bus stop utilises solar power and accommodates for a standard size wheelchair for shelter. User can also update their profile, top- up their Go-Card and plan their journey. Utilising the internet of things, XLO is connected to the Go-Card system, driverless buses, smart phones and watches and transport services and staff. All users with different types of needs, not just the aged disabled will have a personalised travel journey catered to their needs when required.

DESIGN RESEARCH

​For my 4th-year honours Thesis on Improving Mobility Access for the Disabled Elderly in the Future. In semester 1, we researched and wrote a thesis and then in semester 2 we designed a solution from the findings. 

In the next two-decades in Queensland, it is expected that there will be one in five people aged over 65. As the aged population grows, mobility and accessibility demand will increase significantly. Having access to transport is essential for quality of life, especially for the disabled. However, it is an expensive task, which can impact thousands of people every day. As there is a lack of communication between the aged disabled people and transport services and difficulty to embark and disembark buses.

Projected to be used by 2030, XLO is an interactive screen embedded into smart bus stops and located at the entry of large bus stations. Users can scan their go-card to pay their fare, access travel updates, update their profile, plan a journey, top up Go-card, have assistance with navigation and improve the communication between the passenger and transport service. XLO aims to help the disabled elderly to allow them to notify the driverless bus and transport staff that they need assistance embarking and disembarking the vehicle and what type of assistance, during their journey at certain locations. The need for XLO is that it helps users, especially who need special requirements to plan and receive adequate assistance for their travel journey. When planning ahead, the users notify the driverless bus if they need any assistance, such as wheelchair ramps access to receive physical assistance if necessary.

RESEARCH

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT + WIREFRAMES

SCENARIO

This Link will take you to the interactive screen interfaces:  https://projects.invisionapp.com/share/DGDN2K75Z#/screens/255023274

INTERFACES

MODEL MAKING

Slide 1 TITLE: Improving mobility access for the disabled elderly in the future XLO

In the next two-decades in Queensland it is expected that there will be one in five people aged over 65. Due to this, there will be a growth in mobility demand. It is vital to have an effective and affordable public transport system to ensure access for the disabled elderly to meet their basic transport needs. However, it is an expensive task, which can impact thousands of people every day.

Slide 2 Mobility and Disabled Elderly

From the research conducted mobility accessibility, cognitive and physical impairment and social exclusion are the main factors that influence the disabled elderly’s ability to access and use public transport services. As seen in the customer journey map, half of their experience is negative, as they cannot walk far, need stability or wheelchair assistance when boarding and have challenges with navigating.

SLIDE 3 Aim (design proposal)

So, the aim is to design a product/service to help the disabled elderly embark and disembark transport vehicles easily. The design objectives are to assist the physically disabled elderly when boarding transport vehicles, have Communication and accurate real-time information readily available if they need assistance and utilise advanced technology.

SLIDE 4 XLO design solution/ system/ service

The design solution is XLO. XLO is an interactive screen attached to walls at large stations and smart bus stops in suburban streets, in 2030. Users can scan their go-card, access travel updates and top-up their go-card. XLO aims to help the disabled elderly to allow them to notify the driverless bus and transport staff that they need assistance embarking and disembarking the vehicle. This allows staff or the driverless bus to prepare wheelchair ramps and other services to help assist the users.

Slide 5 Scenario

The design fiction video will show a user’s journey and how XLO is used to improve their transport experience.

 

 

 

 

Slide 6 XLO Screen Interface

So as seen in the video the main point of interaction is the screen interface. The screen interface also has the options of plan journey, and updating profile. Decals and audio are utilised to help clearly understand the instructions given when using the interfaces.

As the disabled elderly will experience a decline in motor skills with age, the screen involves finger tapping and having familiar icons that easily convey obvious information. Each interface has information that are short, clear and concise, so it is not overwhelming and prevents cognitive overload and the colour scheme helps to distinguish different features.

Slide 7 XLO Smart Bus Stop  

To accommodate the disabled elderly users to easily access the smart bus stop, the interactive screens are at 1 metre above the ground to align with users who are on wheelchairs, point of view. The width of the shelter is 1.5 meters to fit a wheelchair user and 3 metres long for other users to sit down. The signage is orange to help identify the screen interface and location, as it is a contrasting colour to the rest of the stop.

The materials that are used for the bus stop are powder coated steel, toughen glass to protect the screen interfaces and gortex fabric to prevent water and dust to go inside the screens and audio components.

Slide 8 Product Ecosystem

So, as shown in the product ecosystem, there are many products & services involved to make the transport service convenient. All the products and services are connected to the internet of things and the information goes to a cloud. This is where driverless buses and transport staff are notified for any assistance required at an upcoming stop, using real-time information.

Slide 9 Future of Public Transport

Utilising advanced technology, XLO helps the disabled elderly users to be able to have sufficient service to help them embark and disembark buses easily. As majority of the features are designed for the aged disabled needs, these features can also be catered for the general public and make their public transport experience more reliable, personalised and to create a sustainable transport future.

As the aged population grows, mobility and accessibility demand will increase significantly in the next two decades. Having access to transport is essential for quality of life, especially for the disabled. As there is a lack of communication between the aged disabled people and transport services and difficulty to embark and disembark buses. Projected to be used by 2030, XLO is an interactive screen imbedded into smart bus stops and located at the entry of large bus stations. Users can scan their go-card to pay their fare, access travel updates, update their profile, plan journey, top up Go-card, have assistance with navigation and improve the communication between the passenger and transport service.

XLO aims to help the disabled elderly to allow them to notify the driverless bus and transport staff that they need assistance embarking and disembarking the vehicle and what type of assistance, during their journey at certain locations. The need for XLO is that it helps users, especially who need special requirements to plan and receive adequate assistance for their travel journey. When planning ahead, the users notify the driverless bus if they need any assistance, such as wheelchair ramps access to receive physical assistance if necessary. This feature is on the screen interface can also be used for anyone other than the disabled elderly for different requirements. The users can link their Go-Card profile to XLO, where they can have specific requirements entered. This allows staff and the driverless bus to prepare automatic wheelchair ramps and assistance when disembarking.

Utilising the internet of things, XLO is connected to the Go-Card system, driverless buses, smart phones and watches and transport services and staff. All users with different types of needs, not just the aged disabled will have a personalised travel journey catered to their needs when required.

Improving Mobility Access for the Disabled Elderly in the Future

 

 

 

Priya Naidu n9171509

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Design (Honours)

 

Queensland University of Technology

Faculty of Creative Industries

 

October 2017

 

Abstract

The global population is growing rapidly. By 2031, Queensland expects to have one in five people aged over 65 (Alsnih & Hensher, 2003). Public transport will be heavily relied on in the future and the considerations of the disability standards for accessible public transport for the disabled elderly is vital. Due to their physical and cognitive impairments at an older age, mobility accessibility is limited. The purpose of this research is to understand the constraints that the disabled elderly face when accessing and taking public transport? Interviews of the demographic who take public transport and observations at bus stations have helped to identify common problems that are encountered. Many disabled elderly have difficulty embarking and disembarking transport vehicles. Therefore, they either use the side railings or a walking stick for support. There are also communication problems between the passenger and the transport service, especially when there are timetable or platform changes at the last minute. As technology is advancing, this is an opportunity for future transport which will greatly benefit this demographic. Information Communication Technology (ICT), automation and Internet of Things (IOT) are likely to be integrated into the future of making public transport more efficient and have real-time information readily available for passengers. To help solve this problem, XLO is a design solution derived from the research conducted. XLO is a smart bus stop with interactive screens for users to interact to ask for assistance and for other general public transport purposes.

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

Abstract. 1

1.0 Introduction. 3

2.0 Mobility and Disabled Elderly. 4

2.1 Mobility Accessibility. 4

2.2 Social Exclusion. 5

2.3 Cognitive and Physical Impairment. 5

2.4 Technology. 5

2.5 Summary. 6

3.0 Research. 7

3.1 Method. 7

Interviews. 7

Observations. 7

3.2 Summary. 8

4.0 Results and Findings. 8

5.0 Discussion. 13

6.0 Recommendations. 15

7.0 Design Proposal 16

Aims. 16

Design Objectives. 16

Design Criteria. 16

Design Process. 17

Schedule. 18

8.0 Design Justification. 19

    8.1 XLO.. 19

    8.2 Scenario. 20

    8.3 Alternative Scenarios. 22

    8.5 XLO Bus Stop Features. 24

    8.6 Ergonomics and Usability. 25

    8.7 Materials and Manufacturing. 26

    8.8 Design Value Proposition. 28

    8.9 Design Process. 28

9.0 Conclusion. 29

References. 30

Appendix. 33

 

 

1.0 Introduction

In the next two-decades the global population will double its present size. By the year 2031, Queensland is expected to have one in five people aged over 65 (Alsnih & Hensher, 2003). Due to these changes in the population, there will be a growth in mobility demand, which can result in social consequences, such as isolation, social exclusion and security. This will contribute to new challenges for transport services, as the travel patterns and needs for the elderly might change. Having mobility access for the elderly is essential for their quality of life, especially for the disabled. They need to be able to access places to make regular medical visits, visit family, maintain social networks and have leisure time.  

Improving disability access on transport systems across Australia is an expensive task. This issue can impact thousands of people every day. Currently, the Australian Government is reviewing the Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport 2002 and will get people’s feedback to ensure the system will be better improved and more accessible throughout Australia that meets the needs of all members of the community (Attorney-general’s department, 2002).

On the other hand, improving the public transport system for low-mobility groups can solve many issues. High accessibility to public transport can influence people's transport mode choices and subsequently their energy consumption for transport. Improved transport technology can also have mode-switching impacts such as new features, modern low-floor bus or automatic guided rail system can attract new groups of travellers. This will be essential for the older population as they will most likely will have physical and cognitive impairments.

It is vital to have an effective, well-functioning and affordable public transport system to ensure access for the disabled elderly to meet their basic transport needs. Many cities are facing major congestion problems and will become a significant problem in the future. A good public transport system will offer better mobility for everyone and accommodate the needs of the disabled elderly in the future.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.0 Mobility and Disabled Elderly

Mobility accessibility for the disabled elderly is crucial for their everyday activities. Mobility is determined by cognitive, psychosocial, physical, environmental and financial influences (Sundling, Nilsson, Hellqvist, Pendrill, Emardson, Berglund, 2015). When public transport is not accessible, it can isolate people from the economic and social life (Velho, Holloway, Symonds and Balmer, 2015). Even though travel frequency decreases at an older age, many trips become short and are usually for shopping purposes and other social events. Therefore, improving transport services and facilities is crucial to provide the needs of this demographic and simultaneously other passengers. However, technology will have a big contribution to the transport service in the future.

2.1 Mobility Accessibility

Accessing transport services is a big issue for many disabled elderly. Mobility accessibility is usually constrained by the availability of time, money, physical abilities and the transport system infrastructures. The location can be a big concern for example, as terminal facilities such as car parks, bus stops and stations and services provided through the system are not always appropriate or easily accessible for them. These include insufficient information that is displayed on signs, maps and interchange facility services (Cañal-Fernández & Muñiz, 2014). Due to this many avoid mass transit use, especially when not all signs and routes are consistent at every station and transport service. According to NRMA (2010), most public transport is unsuitable for the elderly as there are many stations that still have a lot of stairs and do not have lifts. However, there are stations that have been made accessible. The dwell times on train station platforms that the elderly take is long, as they take the time to embark and disembark trains due to their physical health. Public transport providers are also starting to run in smaller and localised services to accommodate the elderly, so they do not have to walk far (NRMA, 2010).

Currently, there is a poorly networked public transport that affects servicing the elderly. There are initiatives that are being placed to accommodate low-mobility groups to access transport services (Auvinen & Tuominen, 2014). There are also a few transport companies that have implemented small initiatives, such as ramps on platforms to level with the height of the trains so it is easier for the elderly on wheelchairs, gophers, walkers or have a physical disability to easily board transport vehicles. Changes to infrastructure such as replacing steps with escalators or lifts are being considered for their end-to-end journeys (Hutton, 2013). However, it is very expensive to implement infrastructure changes and will take years to complete.

The usability and ergonomics are an important factor when designing for the disabled elderly. These factors include wheelchairs, walking sticks, prosthetic legs, vision and hearing impairments. Their needs and abilities need to be taken into consideration such as eyesight, reaction time, stability, posture, concentration and clear thinking (Queensland Government, 2017). The Queensland standards requirements for “the disabled to access public transport need to have access paths, manoeuvring areas, ramps, boarding devices, allocated spaces, handrails, doorways, controls, symbols, signs and payments of fares” (Queensland Government, 2017).

For wheelchairs, the allocated space on the vehicle of 1300mm by 800mm and height of 1500mm, which Is a requirement by the Australian Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport 2002. Many buses have low-floor buses and have level access through the front door instead of steps and ramp for the wheelchair (Queensland Government, 2017). The demographic needs to have access to all modes of transport with ease and confidence. Improvements in accessibility are being initiated, such as kneeling buses, that are lowered to decrease the step height from the platform, have better handholds, non-slip floors, accessible for the users who are on wheelchairs and easy to use the bell. Buses nowadays do not have conductors, so there is not always physical assistance available (Roper, Mulley, 1996). Short walking distances within stations and reliability of service also need to be considered (Sundling et al, 2015). The Queensland Government (2014), are aiming to ensure that passengers can access and read the information provided and readily available on technology.

2.2 Social Exclusion

Private transport is more preferred than public transport, especially with the elderly, as it is assumed to be safer with the perceptions of exposure to crime, anti-social behaviour and vulnerability to mass threats to the public (Queensland Government, 2014). However, these events can happen rarely and its impact on personal safety and security in travel.

The elderly who do depend on public transport may have to endure rush hour, depending on their purpose of transit. As a result, they tend to have a fear of crowds, getting lost, physical attack, embarrassment and psychological and informational constraints, which affects their confidence in themselves to take public transport in the future (Beecroft & Pangbourne, 2014). This limits the individual’s inability to participate in key life-enhancing opportunities such as missed health appointments and socialising with friends and family (Alsnih & Hensher, 2003). This leads to social exclusion and disability discrimination to this user group, as there are objective issues such as confidence of an individual’s knowledge and experience on taking public transport and their safety needs to be considered (Hensher, 2006).

2.3 Cognitive and Physical Impairment

Cognitive impairment is an important health factor in relation to transport services and facilities, as they cause a mobility barrier to the users. Due to their age, they have lessened sensory capacity, coordination difficulties and a more selective awareness of the environment. This can prevent them from using conventional transport services such as getting a travel ticket, accessing the platform or stop, and entering and exiting the vehicle (Cañal-Fernández, & Muñiz, 2014).

Physical impairment is another important factor during their transit journey, as they must interact with their physical surrounding. Passengers in wheelchairs & walkers may encounter difficulties boarding vehicles, experience problems going up and down stairs and sidewalks, especially during peak hours (Cañal-Fernández, et al, 2014). Their mobility and accessibility requirements need to be better understood to ensure that resources support the needs of the ageing population now and in the future.

2.4 Technology

Technology is currently encompassing our daily lives. Technological innovation will have an important role to support personal security, such as safety and reliability of operating vehicles and transport systems. Services will facilitate individual travel choices through smartphones and smart cards using the OV chip. Currently, there are many apps for journey planning services and surveillance, as transport providers are concerned with general security issues, but also focusing on safety (Ericsson, 2016).

Sensory impairments must be considered, such as vision and hearing. These impairments could restrict an elderly user from obtaining vidual information on displays or hearing announcements over the speaker. Accessibility to technology is a key component that will influence the user experience. Many users will have different experiences with technology and their needs. The design of the elderly user experience in the public transport system needs to be more focused on single aspects, such as physical barriers or single steps of the whole journey (Grimaldi, et al, 2016).

Information Communication Technology (ICT), are currently being implemented into the transport systems. It is aimed that they will help make transportation efficient and create space-time convergence for interactions and activities in the environment setting (Levinason, 2005).

Intelligent transport systems (ITS) are currently being integrated into the overall design and management infrastructure and will play a significant role in the future of transport. Smart- cards and electronic ticketing will be used frequently. Communication between the transport systems to the users such as real-time information on when the bus or train is arriving will become more accurate and frequently be relied on (Hope, 2007). Currently, many cities are exploring intelligent transport systems (ITS) to improve commuting by using demand prediction, dynamic trip planning and integrated payments solutions (Ericsson, 2015). This will eventually help improve urban traffic flow by optimising traffic signals (Bampton, Campbell, Heyns, 2016).

Emerging technology such as autonomous and electric vehicles are currently being developed and may potentially be used in public transport systems. This could help manage congestion, enhance the quality of life (Transurban, 2016) and make travel seamless and comfortable. Automation will be towards customer-centric offerings, to make activities such as purchasing tickets, getting to your destination, time to destination simple and easy without any hassle.

Companies such as Ericsson are now prototyping to apply 5G networking functions and data analytics to public transport. This is aimed to simulate traffic and passenger data to indicate bus scheduling while maintaining service levels and reducing the number of buses on a route (Ericsson, 2015). This will make smarter public transport and connectivity to become efficient and sustainable. The 5G network will connect the vehicles to platoons and other vehicles to make free-flow, especially during peak hour. This helps to address commuting demands at peak hours and meeting additional passenger demand (Ericsson, 2015). Therefore, the internet of things (IOT) will be a big contributor to the future of public transport.

 

2.5 Summary

It is evident that public transport will be heavily relied on in the future, especially by the disabled elderly who need transport to get to places such as medical centres, socialising and leisure. Currently, there are many issues in relation to the usability and ergonomics of some of the services and facilities that are provided on public transport vehicles, when accessing the station and boarding. Marginalisation is also a concern, as not all can access some of the services and facilities without assistance. Consequently, this makes the disabled elderly avoid taking public transport due to fear and embarrassment. Cognitive and physical impairment influences many constraints that the demographic encounters and influences their confidence when travelling. However, advanced technology is increasingly being used in our everyday life and will become an opportunity to help the demographic with communication, assistance and plan their transport journey in the future. Therefore, the research question is what are the constraints that the disabled elderly face when accessing and taking public transport?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.0 Research

3.1 Method

The data collection methods that were used to understand the users and the context were interviews and observations. Most of the interviews were undertaken first, to get an understanding of how the target demographic experience their public transport journey. This is aimed to understand the problems they encounter throughout the journey of getting to the station, accessing the stations/ platforms, embarking disembarking public transport vehicles. The observations were conducted with the elderly members of the general public at bus stations and inside the bus. The aim was to observe their actions and the problems they encounter when accessing stations and boarding.

Interviews

Participants who currently take public transport were interviewed. Some of the interviews were audio recorded, as per consent. Participants were not audio recorded if they did not feel comfortable being audio recorded.

The following were questions asked:

(Refer to appendix for interview transcripts)

  • Basic demographic questions: age, current health status, where do you live?

  • How often do you take public transport? 

  • What is usually the purpose of travel?

  • What are the times you normally catch public transport?

  • Fundamental needs when travelling?

  • Do you feel like you can understand the information and signs that are displayed and provided at stations?

  • How long do you usually spend at stations/ bus stops/ platforms, when navigating and waiting?

  • Do you feel safe when taking public transport?

  • What would you change with the public transport system works? Would this want to make you take public transport more often?

Two of the interviews were conducted with both the elderly couple together talking. This was conducted in a conversational manner to enable ease of extraction of information and helped gain insightful information on their past experiences. While two of the interviews were conducted individually.

Observations

Observations were mostly carried out at Mater Hill Bus Station, Queen Street Bus station and during the bus ride. While observing at bus platforms, notes were taken that aligned with the questions below were considered and a few questions were formulated from interviews conducted.

Space

Activity

Object

Act

Event

Time

How does the environment (platform, station, etc.) effectively display information/ wayfinding for the user to understand easily? 

What are the challenges they face when catching the bus?

 

What are the objects/ devices/ products that users interact with during the journey?

 

How do they get on and off transport vehicles?

 

Are they prepared to pay/ scan their go-card, get on board and navigate through the station/ platform?

How long it takes them to get on board and off?

 

Does the user rely on the information given?

 

 

Do they interact with other passengers or staff for help?

 

 

 

3.2 Summary

The method is aimed to provide both quantitative and qualitative data on the demographics’ current public transport experiences. The interviews were helpful to understand the participant's emotions and challenges that they experience when taking public transport. Responses from the interviews of the common problems were observed to find out more about the why it is a problem. The observations helped gain insight into the common challenges and actions that the demographic encounter when taking public transport.

  

4.0 Results and Findings

The methods were both coded and analysed in an Excel spreadsheet to help find patterns of the significant problems that this demographic face when using public transport. Most of the results were analysed through graphs and tables to summarise the main key codes found from the patterns.  

Interviews Analysis

The interviews that were recorded, were transcribed and then placed into an excel spreadsheet against the themes from the interviews. Table 1 below, shows the summary of the main themes that highlight the problems faced by commuters.

CODES (Themes)

Sub-Codes

Transcript summaries

Physical Impairment

Cannot walk far

Need a walking stick, walker or wheelchair

Cannot walk fast

Knee problems

  • Cannot walk too far- need a walking stick, walker or wheelchair

  • Find it difficult to board buses with steps and going down stairs at platforms- takes a while and is uncomfortable

  • Knee constraints- surgery

  • Need to walk fast if bus or train is about to leave- checkers don’t take notice or don’t care

  • Need to walk far

Cognitive impairment

Hearing problems

Memory problems

  • Hearing problems- need hearing aids

  • Sometimes forget things- memory problems

Other health problems

Operations

  • Heart pacers

  • Vision problems

  • Knee surgery

Public transport trips

Once a week

Twice a week

Three times a week

Bus

Train

  • 1-3 times a week

  • Usually, walk to bus stop

  • Usually, drive to train station

Purpose of travel

Socialising

Airport

Shopping

Medical

  • Socialising- i.e. bowling, taking visitors to city

  • Airport

  • Shopping

  • Medical appointments

Time of day

Morning

Afternoons

  • Early mornings- common around 7 am

  • Afternoon

Wayfinding/ Information

Can read and understand

Need help with reading

Miscommunication with updated travel information

  • Can understand how the public system works

  • Usually, need assistance to read signs

  • Not always updated if need to catch a rail bus or change platforms

  • Miscommunication between checkers and station master if there are elderly waiting

Duration

15mins

30mins

1 hour

  • Usually spend around 1-15mins at stops

  • When coming home need to wait for the bus up to half an hour, especially during off-peak, as it travels hourly

  • Travel journey up to an hour

Safety/ Security

Feel safe

Sometimes feel safe

 

  • Generally, feel safe

  • Drivers drive too fast- feel unstable and fall into the aisle,

Problems boarding

Carrying things

Walking on steps

Need to use railings for stability

Not enough assistance

Not comfortable

Trouble getting off

  • Difficulty carrying groceries

  • Difficulty when boarding with a walker onto the bus, especially with steps

  • Need to use railings

  • Drivers don’t always put down ramps for wheelchairs

  • Not enough assistance from drivers

  • Have trouble getting on and off vehicles, especially if there is a gap between the platforms

  • Not comfortable

Transport in general

Expensive

Need to have regular service

  • Expensive

  • Needs to be dropped from pensioners

Table 1: Summary of the problems that the demographic encounter from the interviews.


Many of the participants catch the bus in the mornings and during off- peak hours, as there are fewer people and the fare is less expensive. As shown in Figure 1, 60% of the users use public transport for socialising, leisure and getting to the airport interchanging from bus to train, 20% for medical appointments and four of the participants take public transport at least three days a week. While two participants take public transport every few months, mostly to travel to and from the airport.

Figure 1: Shows the common purposes of travel by the demographic and the times during the day.

Physical impairment was a significant factor that the participants experience when travelling. As shown in Figure 2, 50% of the participants cannot walk far, they either need a walking stick or wheelchair to help them reach places. One of the participants have undergone knee surgery and have problems with joints. This causes them problems when boarding onto buses with steps and getting off. Even accessing and exiting the platform can be difficult as there is not always an elevator available. One of the participants also had major health problems such as having vision and memory problems and has a heart pacer.

 

 

 


Figure 2: The common physical constraints that the participants encounter during travel

About 30% (shown in Figure 3) of the participants were able to understand and read the information at stations, and did not experience major wayfinding issues. However, there was one participant who needed their partner by their side, as she cannot read well. One the other hand, 30% of the participants did not always get updated about platform changes on time. Therefore, they need to catch a rail bus instead and in most cases, they usually missed the bus, as they are not able to walk fast enough in time. Many (50% including both male and female participants) of the participants spend about fifteen to thirty minutes at bus stops or stations to travel to and from their destination. However, The overall travel journey may take up to an hour for 50% of the participants.

Figure 3: Public transport trips and common mode of transport

The majority (90%, as shown in Figure 4) of the participants generally feel safe when taking public transport. However, if they are carrying groceries or have a walker, they tend to find it difficult to board. They rely on the side railings on the door to step onto the bus to be stable. They do not always receive help from the drivers unless they are in a wheelchair. On few occasions, two of the participants fell from their seats into the aisle and while they were carrying grocery and looking for a seat because the bus driver was driving too fast. This makes it difficult for them to trust the transport services. On the other hand, regularity of transport and fares is an issue that they face. As pensioners, it can be difficult for them to afford to travel and have leisure time and there are fewer services available that do not come regularly in their area.


Figure 4: Common problems that participants face during their travel journey

Observation Analysis

Observations were conducted at major bus stations and bus stops during the late mornings and early afternoons, as these were the times most of this demographic caught the bus. The common themes are summarised in Table 2 below and Figure 5 shows the comparison of the significant problems that are encountered.

Codes

Code Description / Transcript

 Waiting

  • Most people sit down

  • Usually the healthy elderly usually stand

  • When bus comes need to walk fast or when bus is about to leave need to run or pusher or walking stick waving at the driver

Boarding

  • Use railings to get on the bus

  • Walk slow

  • Passengers on wheelchair wait for the driver to pull down the ramp to board

Seating

  • Majority sit towards the front and leave out the front- there are signs that indicate priority seating for the elderly and wheelchair

  • Sitting towards the front gives them the opportunity to communicate to the driver if they need assistance

  • There are wheelchair button bells for assistance

  • During transit, most hold on to the seat or railings, especially when bus driving is driving fast

Navigation

  • Rely on the real-time information signs at platforms

  • Reading information boards

Getting off

  • Use their walking stick or trolley to get off from the bus

  • Walk slow

  • Used the side railings on the bus door

Table 2: Summary of the common themes that the demographic encounter from the observations.

As seen in Figure 5, 70% elderly travellers use railings on the doors and throughout the bus to help assist them when boarding, moving through the bus to sit down and to get off the bus. The majority of passengers walk slowly while boarding and when sitting down. The bus drivers wait for them to be seated before moving the bus. Passengers in wheelchairs require ramps pulled to be down by the driver for them to board, which takes time. Figure 5 shows that 70% of the disabled elderly passengers use a trolley, walker or walking stick to get on and off the bus as support for stability. Even during the bus ride, they hold onto the seat or railings. Two passengers were seen relying on the information on boards, but the majority relied on the real-time information signs displayed at platforms to let them know exactly when their bus arrives. This is so they can stand up and line up in time, as they walk slowly.

 

Figure 5: Common actions users take at stations and buses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.0 Discussion

The purpose of this study was to understand the current challenges that disabled elderly people experience with public transport and how to improve mobility accessibility. Through observations and interviews, both have shown the common problems that this demographic face while taking public transport.

One of the main issues that the users face is boarding vehicles due to their physical impairments. Many of the users have difficulty boarding buses, especially if the buses have stairs, as 30% of the passengers have knee problems at that age or have had surgery. Consequently, it also makes it difficult to disembark, especially if they are carrying groceries or using a walker or walking stick. As previously mentioned, changes to infrastructure such as replacing stairs with ramps or lifts (Hutton, 2013) at platforms can ease the accessibility for many. Utilising human factor standards for the disabled is crucial to accommodate their needs, as many find it difficult to board and get off vehicles. This includes access paths, manoeuvring areas, ramps, boarding devices, allocated spaces, handrails, doorways, controls, symbols, signs and payments of fares” (Queensland Government, 2017) to solve this issue.

Most of these standards and initiatives are being placed, however, in the future, it will be to be more prominent, as there will be a large portion of the population that will need assistance when taking transport services. Many of the participants generally feel safe when taking public transport. However, some of the interviewees mentioned that there are some drivers who do not care about assisting the elderly or drive buses fast. This makes it more difficult and uncomfortable for them to rely on public transport. This can affect their confidence in taking transport in the future (Beecroft & Pangbourne, 2014). Currently, through observations, many passengers use the railings on the doors and throughout the bus to help them to be stable. There were a few who use their walking stick or trolley to help them board the bus, instead of the rails. Many tend to sit towards the front of the bus and hold onto rails or seats during transit, so they are stable and receive quick assistance when needed, especially the bell for the disabled elderly in wheelchairs.

The purpose of travel is usually for social and leisure time (Figure 1). Thus, they take public transport during off- peak hours every few days or months and occasionally to the airport. Many of the participants could read and understand the information and wayfinding provided at stations. However, if there were changes to platform, timetables or if there are rail works, many did not find out about the information straight away, until they arrive at the stop. This causes their travel time to increase and makes it challenging to move to places, as their dwell times are usually long (NRMA, 2010). Having high accessibility to transport service can improve this situation and increase the trust between the passengers with the service. Accessing the platform by stairs or long walking distances can cause a mobility barrier to the users (Cañal-Fernández, & Muñiz, 2014), as not all platforms have lifts, which makes the situation more difficult.

The users rely on real-time information for travel. Not all bus stops and platforms provide up-to-date information. Consequently, they rely on the printed timetables and maps to plan their journey. Being notified about changes to bus or train timetables, is important for this demographic, as mentioned before they may not be able to travel to changed location in time due to their physical abilities. Usually travelling back home, the users tend to wait for the transport service for up to half an hour. This impacts their time they spend on travel and makes them see transport services as unreliable. However, utilising advanced technology can improve this issue.

Implications

Many of the elderly find it difficult to board and disembark vehicles, they cannot walk far, and due to this they cannot walk fast or run to catch a bus that is about to departure, quickly take the stairs or when there is a gap between the ground and the vehicle. On the other hand, they do not receive much assistance when boarding and being up to date if there are transport changes, as the information provided are not always clear. Also, many users use public transport for socialising and to get to the airport, mostly during off-peak hours, due to the high fare incurred during peak periods. The observations showed that railings on the bus were commonly used by the disabled elderly, to assist them when boarding and getting off. Railings were sometimes used inside the bus to sit down. However, most of the passengers sat towards the front of the bus, as it is closer to the entrance. Also, on buses, there are marked seating for reservations for wheelchairs and for the elderly that are towards that front of the bus. Therefore, many sit towards the front, as there are buttons for the wheelchair assistant bell and they also can communicate to the driver easily.

Limitations

In future studies, interviewing the elderly who rely on public transport everyday would help understand other aspects of problems that this demographic face. Since most of the interviewees either take public transport one to three times a week or every few months for leisure, which is not enough to know what other factors there are that influences the constraints that the demographic faces. Considering other public transport modes such as trains, trams or ferries may also give an in-depth understanding of what are other common problems that this demographic encounters. Also, researching what other cities nationally and internationally are doing to help improve mobility accessibility for the disabled elderly and to see if there are any differences and similarities within this problem.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.0 Recommendations

From this research, it is evident that the disabled elderly people encounter problems associated with their physical and cognitive impairments, communication between the service and passenger, and accessing regular transport service for leisure activities. Many users rely on having stability when boarding vehicles, which is an important factor that needs to be considered when designing public transport services. It is crucial for users to have assistance at stations and platforms to help them, as many of them stated during interviews and were also noted during observations that they rely on the side railings.

Ways that can help improve the accessibility to vehicles, stations and platforms would be to:

  • Have fewer stairs and more ramps placed. This will help passengers with wheelchairs and who have trouble taking the stairs. However, changing infrastructure will be expensive and will take years to complete.

  • Help passengers with wheelchairs and who have trouble taking the stairs.

  • Have assistance readily available, especially when boarding would be helpful for the users who cannot walk far and have physical impairments that limit them from taking stairs.

Communication is also important, especially between the passenger and the driver or staff on the platform. Having a good communication system can help the elderly efficiently board the vehicles. Notifying drivers or staff at stations beforehand will let the transport staff know who is boarding at which stop, so they can prepare for assistance without causing any service delays. Also, if there are any timetable or platform changes, the users can be notified beforehand, so their dwell time will not be increased and they can plan their travel journey.

Many rely on real-time information on bus arrival at platforms and occasionally the print boards for routes. Using technology such as information communication technology (ICT) can play a major contributor on accurate real-time information and is also currently being implemented into transport systems. The Internet of Things will also be prominent in the future and can be used to enhance the communication between the passenger and transport service during transit. In the future, it is predicted many transport and services will be automated, therefore, facilities such as ramps for wheelchairs could be automated to make the travel journey easier.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.0 Design Proposal

As the aged population is growing, accessing transport will become a significant issue. Many users have difficulty when boarding due to their physical health or their low cognitive load. This will become an important issue in the future, as a large portion of the population will be over 65. Based on the research conducted, key recommendations were to improve the communication between the passenger and the staff at the station and platforms so the driver knows if there is a passenger who needs assistance, so there are no delays in service. Automation and technology will be an opportunity to help the physically disabled to the board and get off vehicles in the future.  

 

Aims

The aim is to design a product or service to help the disabled elderly embark and disembark transport vehicles easily.

 

Design Objectives

  • Assist the physically disabled elderly when embarking and disembarking transport vehicles without causing any service delays.

  • Passengers are able to communicate between the drivers or staff on platforms if they need assistance when accessing stations or embarking and disembarking transport vehicles.

  • Have accurate real-time information readily available to the passengers if there are timetable or platform changes at inconvenient times. This will help them to have ample time to reach to the new stop for transport service.

 

Design Criteria

  • User Demographic

The ergonomic design of the solution can be designed not just for the physically and cognitively impaired elderly, but also to be suitable for other disabled users, as well as users of the general public. Hence, it will become safe for the various demographics with different needs. Any visual interface must be readable by screen readers for visually impaired people and clear to easily understand its use. Text, visuals and audio need to be utilised for the visually and hearing impaired to help them communicate to others when they need assistance and to notify the passengers for transport service updates.

  • Form and Function Resolution

The solution needs to be a reasonable size and the aesthetics must visually convey its interface clearly. The interface should also cater for the visually impaired and have clear instructions. It should not be fragile and it must meet the required standards from the Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport 2002. The assembly must be simple and have few components. It must not have sharp edges or make it difficult for the user to use.

  • Material and Manufacturing Considerations

As many of the demographic use wheelchairs and walking sticks, the product solution must utilise durable, sustainable, damage resistant and reusable materials. It must also be sourced and manufactured locally. It should also have a simple installation.

  • Technology

The use of advanced technology is vital as it is increasingly being used in our everyday lives and will help improve the efficiency of future transport. Technology such as automation for driverless vehicles and ramps or related products that can help assist the demographic. Internet of Things (IOT), such as 5G networks are predicted to be used prominently in the future of transport and can be used by many passengers to plan their journey and receive updates in real time. Information Communication Technology (ICT) will be used to help make transportation efficient, as it will help vehicles and transport staff to communicate with one another and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) will help manage the overall system. Therefore, these technologies will be valuable to ease the challenges that are being faced now. 

 

  • Sustainability and Maintenance

The design solution must be environmentally friendly, have a low impact or have no waste produced, energy efficient and recyclable. It should be designed to last a long time and the maintenance process simple.

 

 

Design Process

  • DISCOVER:

  • Research: Market research- understand what other products there are and competitors that are solving this problems nationally and internationally ( past, present and future initiatives).

  • Create personas from the research, customer journey maps (pain points)/ day in a life.

  • Concept Generation: brainstorm concepts from recommendations, that meet the design criteria.

  • Branding

  • DEFINE:

  • Concept development: develop potential concepts that are suitable to the demographic and context.

  • Test concepts through low-fidelity models to help guide which concept is viable.

  • DEVELOP:

  • Product Development: Refine and iterate the final chosen concept, prototype and test models to meet the design criteria.

  • Apply materials, ergonomics & usability standards, manufacturing considerations, lifecycle/ maintenance considerations

  • Storyboard- sequence of use

  • DELIVER:

  • Final Product concept completed

  • Design Fiction Video

  • CAD models and technical drawings for manufacture

  • Refined final model

  • Design Justification

  • Final presentation pitch

 

 

Schedule

 

 

8.0 Design Justification

As the aged population grows, mobility and accessibility demand will increase significantly in the next two decades. Having access to transport is essential for quality of life, especially for the aged disabled. It is vital to have an effective and affordable public transport system to ensure access for the disabled elderly to meet their basic transport needs. However, it is an expensive task, which can impact thousands of people every day.

Currently, there is a lack of communication between the aged disabled people and transport services. Many of these users are not always able to receive information if there are changes to timetables and end up waiting for the bus service for up to an hour. Many find it challenging to embark and disembark buses and the accuracy of real-time information is not always convenient if there are last minute changes to timetables or bus stations. By 2030, it is forecasted that public transport will be easily  accessible and reliable for all types of users. Many products, services and vehicles will be all connected by the internet of things. This will help maximise the benefits of intelligent and automated transport networks in the future (NSW Government, 2017).

8.1 XLO

XLO (figure 8) is an interactive screen at large stations and smart bus stops in suburban streets (figure 8), projected to be used in 2030. Users can scan their go-card to pay their fare, access travel updates, update their profile, plan journey, add money, have assistance with navigation and most importantly the disabled elderly users can use it to notify transport service staff and driverless buses that they will need assistance and what type of assistance, during their journey at certain locations.

 

Figure 8: XLO at bus station

XLO aims to help the disabled elderly to allow them to notify the driverless bus and transport staff that they need assistance embarking and disembarking the vehicle. This communication notification will let the transport service know where the passenger is waiting and where they want to get off. This allows staff or the driverless bus to prepare wheelchair ramps and assisting when disembarking.

The need for XLO is that it helps users, especially who need special requirements to plan and receive adequate assistance for their travel journey. When planning ahead, the users notify the driverless bus if they need any assistance, such as wheelchair ramps/ access, walking sticks and to receive physical assistance if necessary. This feature can also be used for mothers with prams or for anyone other than the disabled elderly for different requirements. The users can link their Go-Card profile to XLO, where they can have specific requirements entered that the users need. This also lets the driverless bus know what type of assistance they need such as having the wheelchair ramp lowered or letting the staff at major bus stations know that there will be a passenger that will need help getting off the bus and navigating to exit, before they arrive to the destination.

8.2 Scenario

The design solution XLO is aimed to help the disabled elderly to be able to notify driverless buses and the staff at major bus stations that they need assistance for their upcoming travel journey. XLO also helps the general public to make their travel quick and convenient. As seen in the figures below, shows the users travel journey from home when they are planning their journey, to the bus stop, during transit, disembarking and navigating to exit the station.

  1. Journey Planning

The user first plans their journey on a smartphone app (figure 9) and travels to the bus stop as directed by the app and then either walk or drive to their nearest bus stop.

 

Figure 9: Users plans their journey first at home, then travels to the bus stop

  1. XLO Bus Stop

Once the user arrives they tap their go-card on the screen to log in and pay their fare (figure 10). Once they are logged in, they have the option to top up their go-card and ask for assistance for their needs, before the screen logs them out to the home screen. When the user selects ‘Yes’ for assistance they have the option to select where they want to travel to receive assistance. There is a favourites feature for stops they embark regularly.  Then the user is then asked if they need assistance when travelling. This sends information to the driverless bus that a disabled elderly passenger is waiting and where they want to disembark, so there will be adequate assistance available for their needs.

 

Figure 10: User interacts with the touch interface to pay their fare and to notify the driverless bus and transport staff at the other end of the journey for assistance.

As seen in figure 11, the user is given instructions that will receive assistance. They also have the opportunity to plan ahead if they are going to a new station by selecting the map for directions to exit and facilities nearby. The users have the option to send the journey and map details to their phones or print it out to refer throughout the travel journey.

 

Figure 11: User interacting with interfaces for assistance and waiting for the bus to arrive.

  1. Embarking

While the user is waiting for the bus to arrive (figure 12), they will receive a notification on their smartphone or watch, how long the bus will arrive and if transport staff will help them or there will be an automatic ramp for them to walk on to the bus. When the bus arrives, it automatically lowers the ramp for the user to board easily.

  1. Transit

While the user is in transit, a few minutes before they arrive, they will receive a notification the time remaining for arrival and what type of assistance they will receive while disembarking and exiting the station.

 

Figure 12: Embarking onto the bus and disembarking while receiving assistance and notifications during transit.

  1. Disembarking

When the bus arrives at their destination, the users receive assistance at the station to disembark. If the user needs assistance for navigating to exit the station, the staff can help them, or they can use the maps given to them on their phone or print out for directions.

  1. Exit

As they are exiting, they receive a notification that they have paid for their journey, for their records (figure 13).

 

Figure 13: User exiting the station

8.3 Alternative Scenarios

The XLO interactive screen also has other features that caters for other scenarios, such as buying tickets, planning journey if unprepared, updating profile, top up go-card and maps.

  1. Buying Tickets

 

Figure 14: Home interface for buying tickets

As seen in figure 14 and 15, the interfaces have large text (36pt), contrasting colours to help distinguish certain features and selections for users aged over 65, as their cognitive load and eye sight decreases. The steps to buy a ticket is simple and the visuals and audio are utilised to help both the disabled and general public to understand how to buy a ticket.

  1. Plan Journey

 

Figure 16: Home interface for buying tickets

In the plan journey interfaces, the user can update their profile, check service updates, upcoming buses, top up their go-card and plan a journey, if they did not prepare beforehand. When the user is planning their journey, they have the option to choose which journey is suitable for them. Icons are used with text to help the elderly understand the information provided. All cancel buttons are coloured in red to stand out if they don’t want to continue. Buttons to ‘continue on’ are all orange to standout with other features on the page. The users are also notified that they have paid and can continue on or check the map for exit directions or assistance. 

  1. Profile

 

Figure 18: Profile information

The profile helps the transport service and driverless bus knows what the user needs during their travel journey. The users are able to select what types of requirements they need and can add other needs too, such as wheelchair access, lifts, ramps and navigation. This lets the user to have privacy when asking for assistance when planning their journey on the screen. Also, they do not have to repeatedly write down what type of assistance they need each time they scan their go-card, as it is all recorded in the system.

  1. Top Up Go-Card

The users are able to top up their go-card while waiting for the bus (figure 19). They can only use a credit card to pay using the NFC on the touch screen. This makes the process for payment easier for both the user and transport service.

 

Figure 19: starting screen to top up Go-Card

8.4 Product Ecosystem

As shown in the product ecosystem diagram (figure 12), there are many products involved to make the transport service convenient. All the products and services are connected to the internet of things and the information goes to a cloud. The product and service that is focused on is the interactive screens, XLO, as this is the main communication between the user and the transport service if they need any assistance when embarking and disembarking, before they start travelling. XLO, also provides a more personalised experience, as the general public can also use it for their needs too.

 

Figure 12: Product Ecosystem

8.5 XLO Bus Stop Features

The main feature is the touch screen interface. This is where the user will be interacting with the most at the beginning of their travel journey. The screen in imbedded into the stop, similar to a kiosk, at each stop and stations. Within this stand it also has speakers for audio, NFC scanner for the go-card and credit cards, ticket printing machine for users who do not have a go-card and a proximity sensor to know when the user leaves the screen, so it can turn the screen off to sleep, after a time of inactivity. Below the screen, there is a decal stating, “Touch when screen is blank”, this helps users how to start when they arrive when the screen is blank. There are a few foldable seats for shelter and if a user in a wheelchair or has a pram can fold the seat for more space. XLO uses solar energy for power and communicates to the driverless bus, smart devices and transport service staff, through the internet of things, such as WIFI and 5G networks.

 

 

Screen

Decal- “Touch when screen is blank”

Ticket printer

Arrow indicate where to take ticket

Audio/ speakers

Figure 21: Close-up of XLO bus stop and Screen features

 

8.6 Ergonomics and Usability

The height of the screens on the XLO bus stop are at 1 metre, which aligns with users who are on wheelchairs point of view (figure 22). The width of the shelter is one and a half metres to fit a wheelchair and three metres long (figure 23). The seats on the back are foldable if the user of the wheelchair needs shelter. Disabled elderly who cannot stand too long can also sit on the seats and interact with the screen. Around each screen has an orange strip around the edge to indicate to the users where to interact to pay their fare. The XLO logo is displayed on the back glass and on the side of the bus stop, to indicate to users where the bus stop is from a distance. The orange writing of the location helps users know what their starting location is and is a contrasting colour to the rest of the stop.  

 

Figure 22: Users interacting with XLO bus stop and Screen interfaces

The interface screen is daylight readable and has high contrast to be able to see large text and icons, as the users aged over 65 are sensitive to light. Just below the screen has a decal “Touch screen when blank” to let the users know if the screen has timed out after 30 minutes of inactivity. The home, cancel, back and continue/ confirm buttons are consistent in each corner and colour. This will help the users to easily find the button if they need it. The disabled elderly will experience a decline in motor skills with age, the screen involves finger tapping and having familiar icons that easily convey obvious information, especially when audio is integrated for each step. Each interface has information that are short, clear and concise, so it is not overwhelming and prevents cognitive overload. The colours used help to distinguish different features and be readable for the user. The font sizes are 36pt and the typeface are san serif to make text clear and readable. The background is white, so that users with low vision can read the screen.

8.7 Materials and Manufacturing

The materials that used are 316 stainless steel powder coated and will be die casted. Stainless steel is resistant to harsh weather, heat, rust, water and durable, withstands vandalism, water resistant and simple to maintain. Each side of the bus stop is screwed together. The screens are protected by tempered glass to prevent it from changing colour and can be easily maintained. Between the tempered glass, screen interface and audio speakers are Gore-Tex fabric to prevent water and dust from going inside the compartment and making a protective enclosure for the screen.

  1. Life Cycle and Maintenance

As shown in figure 23, the steel will be die casted, then cutting into sheet metal. And the Tempered glass melted in the furnace for manufacturing. The maintenance is simple by just wiping the screens and main points of interactions at the stop with a damp cloth regularly.

 

Figure 23: Product Lifecyle and maintenance

  1. Bill of Materials

Most of the components for XLO bus stop are off the shelf. However, the shape of the bus stop shelter will be custom made. Refer to the appendix for technical drawings. 

Part

Description

Material

Manufacturing

Costing

Qty

Total cost for part

1

Back XLO Bus stop

316 stainless steel powder coated

Die casted

1200 x 3600x 2.90mm= $414, 99.60kg

1

$414

2

XLO Stop Stand

316 stainless steel powder coated

 

1200 x 3600x 2.90mm= $414, 99.60kg

1

$1656

3

Solar panel

Off the shelf- 3000mm x 1450mm

 

$299- 3m x 3m

1

$299

4

Back glass

Tempered glass

Furnace

1500x2800x1.9mm= $3351

1

$3351

5

Interface compartment

316 stainless steel powder coated

 

1200x3600x0.75mm= $101, 26kg

1

$101

6

Roof curve

316 stainless steel powder coated

 

1200 x 3600x 2.90mm= $414, 99.60kg

1

$414

7

Dyna bolt

Off the shelf

 

10x100= $13.40

6

$80.40

8

XLO compartment

316 stainless steel powder coated

 

1200x3600x0.75mm= $101, 26kg

1

$101

9

Key lock

Off the shelf

 

$20

1

$20

10

Folding chairs

Off the shelf

 

$20

5

$100

11

Screws

Off the shelf

 

10-12x25mm = $8

50

$40

12

Screen

Off the shelf

 

$500

3

$500

13

door hinge

Off the shelf

 

$15

3

$45

14

Gortex fabric

Off the shelf

 

$9.95 4.0-4.9oz

2

$9.95

15

Screen protector

Tempered glass

Furnace

350x450x10=$53.39

3

$160.17

16

Microphone and audio speaker

Off the shelf

 

$20

2

$20

17

Thermal printer

Off the shelf

 

$200

3

$600

18

Router

Off the shelf

 

$30

1

$30

19

Battery

Off the shelf

 

$200

1

$200

20

Inverter

Off the shelf

 

$132

1

$132

21

Tube light

Off the shelf

 

$7

1

$7

22

Support XLO

Off the shelf: CHS steel

 

50x80x2mm=$86

1

$43

Total Amount

Approximately 

$8179

 

8.8 Design Value Proposition

 

Figure 25: Value Proposition Map

The value proposition (figure 25) justifies how XLO meets the aim and design objectives. XLO helps the disabled elderly users to be able to have sufficient service to help them embark and disembark buses easily. The users are able to notify to the driverless buses or staff at the next station that they want assistance. Users will have real-time information readily available at the stops that helps to know if there are any changes to timetables and give them ample time to reach the new stop or platform. The XLO stands have large readable decals to tell the user where to touch their go-card and is visible from a distance, if navigating through a busy station. XLO utilises advanced technology, such as 5G networks, information communication technology (ICT) and intelligent transport systems (ITS), to help ease the challenges that are being faced now. Also, with the internet of things, XLO is connected and synced to user’s smartphones and watches, to be updated about their travel journeys. The XLO stand uses sustainable materials and has a long lifecycle, as its maintenance is simple. The interface and inside components are enclosed tightly so water and dust will not go inside, and the material stainless steel is strong enough for vandalism and harsh weather.

8.9 Design Process

The design process followed the double diamond method as follows:

Discover

During the discover phase created personas, customer journey maps and research on market trends, future public transport and products.

Define

Then this information was used to generate various potential concepts during the define phase. Once a concept was chosen that was suitable to the scenario and started refining the design solution during the develop phase.

Develop

During the develop phase considered the product ecosystem and the main design focus and how it will be used within the scenario. Its lifecycle, maintenance, materials suitable for its environment and how it will be manufactured. The usability and ergonomics were considered to accommodate from the 1 percentile female to elderly man, to meet the appropriate height for the XLO stand and usability of the interface appropriate for the aged. This was then followed by testing the interfaces to the users if they can understand the information provided and meets their needs and wants. Many iterations were made to make sure the usability and the executing of the information is understandable. The bus stop was also modelled to test the shape and structure.

Deliver

The final phase is deliver, where the final refine design solution is presented as a three-dimensional model and design fiction video of how it will be used.

 

 

 

9.0 Conclusion

As the elderly population size is growing it is vital to provide for their needs when taking public transport. Due to physical and cognitive impairments at an older age, many considerations need to be applied to help improve the access to transport services. Disability discrimination is also a concern among the demographic, as it turns them away from the reliability of the service. However, utilising advanced technology will help solve many problems that this demographic is currently experiencing and the reliability of transport services in the future. XLO allows the disabled elderly and anyone who needs specific needs and requirements while travelling to let the driverless buses and transport staff know for assistance. Utilising the internet of things, the XLO bus stop is able to send information the upcoming driverless bus to notify when and where a particular user will need assistance, and will cater for their needs as appropriate. All users are also able to plan their journey ahead before the driverless bus arrives, helps to make travel convenient and efficient, as users are also able to interact with other features that they may need to use for their travel, such as update their profile or top- up their Go-Card.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References 

Alsnih, R., & Hensher, D. A. (2003). The mobility and accessibility expectations of seniors in an ageing population. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 37(10), 903-916. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965856403000739. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/S0965-8564(03)00073-9

Alltrade aluminium. (2017).  glass and stainless steel 2017. Retrieved from https://alltradeglass.com.au/product/clear-toughened-glass/

Attorney-general’s department, Canberra. (2002).  Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport 2002. Retrieved from  https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2011C00213

Australian bureau of statistics. (2003). 1387.3 – Queensland in Review, 2003. Retrieved from  http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/0/0D7DC5FE918EBE65CA256D420082E3B3?opendocumentAuvinen, H., & Tuominen, A. (2014). Future transport systems: long-term visions and socio-technical transitions. [journal article]. European Transport Research Review, 6(3), 343-354. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12544-014-0135-3. doi:10.1007/s12544-014-0135-3

Auvinen, H., & Tuominen, A. (2014). Future transport systems: Long-term visions and socio-technical transitions. European Transport Research Review, 6(3), 343-354. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/10.1007/s12544-014-0135-3

Bampton, G., Campbell, D., & Heyns, W.,Pr Pln. (2016). Autonomous transport - the future is now. Civil Engineering: Magazine of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, 24(8), 9-16. Retrieved from http://gateway.library.qut.edu.au/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/docview/1833115226?accountid=13380

Beecroft, M., & Pangbourne, K. (2015). Future prospects for personal security in travel by public transport. Transportation Planning and Technology, 38(1), 131-148. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03081060.2014.976980. doi:10.1080/03081060.2014.976980

Boer, E. d. (1986). Transport Sociology Social Aspects of Transport Planning. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press.

Camacho, T., Foth, M., Rakotonirainy, A., Rittenbruch, M., & Bunker, J. (2016). The role of passenger-centric innovation in the future of public transport. [journal article]. Public Transport, 8(3), 453-475. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12469-016-0148-5. doi:10.1007/s12469-016-0148-5

Camacho, T. D., Foth, M., & Rakotonirainy, A. (2013). Pervasive Technology and Public Transport: Opportunities Beyond Telematics. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 12(1), 18-25. doi:10.1109/MPRV.2012.61

Cañal-Fernández, V., & Muñiz, M. H. (2014). An exploratory analysis of disabled people accessibility to urban public transport: The use of geographical information systems. Investigaciones Regionales, (30), 79-101. Retrieved from http://gateway.library.qut.edu.au/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/docview/1642338184?accountid=13380

Council, B. C. (2017). Bus Accessibility. Retrieved 7.4.17,  2017from https://www.brisbane.qld.gov.au/traffic-transport/public-transport/buses/bus-accessibility

Dar, K., Bakhouya, M., Gaber, J., Wack, M., & Lorenz, P. (2010). Wireless communication technologies for ITS applications [Topics in Automotive Networking]. IEEE Communications Magazine, 48(5), 156-162. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2010.5458377

Department of transport and main roads. (2017). Travelling with a wheelchair or mobility scooter. Retrieved from http://www.tmr.qld.gov.au/Travel-and-transport/Disability-access-and-mobility/Travelling-with-a-wheelchair-or-mobility-scooter.aspx#public

Ericsson. (2015).  Improving public transport with 5G extract from the Ericsson mobility report. Retrieved from https://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2015/mobility-report/emr-nov-2015-improving-public-transport-with-5g.pdf

Ericsson. (2016). Public transport trends beyond digitalization. Retrieved from  https://www.ericsson.com/thinkingahead/the-networked-society-blog/2016/09/19/public-transport-trends-beyond-digitalization/

F Bromley, R. D., Matthews, D. L., & Thomas, C. J. (2007). City centre accessibility for wheelchair users: The consumer perspective and the planning implications. Cities, 24(3), 229-241. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264275107000224. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2007.01.009

Grimaldi, R., Opromolla, A., Parente, G. A., Sciarretta, E., & Volpi, V. (2016). Rethinking Public Transport Services for the Elderly Through a Transgenerational Design Approach. In J. Zhou & G. Salvendy (Eds.), Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Healthy and Active Ageing: Second International Conference, ITAP 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016 Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17–22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 395-406). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Hensher, D. A. (2007). Some Insights into the Key Influences on Trip-Chaining Activity and Public Transport Use of Seniors and the Elderly. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 1(1), 53-68. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15568310601097004. doi:10.1080/15568310601097004

Holden, E. (2007). Achieving Sustainable Mobility: Everyday and Leisure- time travel in the EU. Western Norway Research Institute, Norway: Ashgate Publishing Limited, England.

Hope, Amanda. Intelligent Transport Systems for Public Transport In Southeast Queensland - State of Play. Transport Engineering in Australia, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2007: 21-30. Retrieved from http://search.informit.com.au.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=942958183211231;res=IELENG. ISSN: 1324-1591.

Hutton, B. (2013). Planning Sustainable Transport. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Hwangbo, H., Kim, J., Kim, S., & Ji, Y. G. (2015). Toward Universal Design in Public Transportation Systems: An Analysis of Low-Floor Bus Passenger Behavior with Video Observations. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 25(2), 183-197. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hfm.20537. doi:10.1002/hfm.20537

Kim, J., Moon, Y. J., & Suh, I. S. (2015). Smart Mobility Strategy in Korea on Sustainability, Safety and Efficiency Toward 2025. IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, 7(4), 58-67. doi:10.1109/MITS.2015.2474995

Levinson, D. M., & Krizek, K. J. (2005). Acess To Destinations (Vol. 6). The Netherlands: Elsevier.

Monotype Imaging Inc. (2017). Designing for Seniors. Retrieved from https://www.fonts.com/content/learning/fyti/situational-typography/designing-for-seniors

NSW Government. (2017). Future transport technology roadmap The journey so far. Retrieved from                     https://future.transport.nsw.gov.au/about-future-transport/program/ 

NSW Government. (2017). Global megatrends. Retrieved from                                   https://future.transport.nsw.gov.au/about-future-transport/megatrends/    

NRMA. (2010).  Transport and Mobility Needs of Ageing Australians. Retrieved from  https://www.mynrma.com.au/media/NRMA_Discussion_Paper_Transport_and_Mobility_Needs_of_Ageing_Australians.pdf

Pettengill, Brad. (2017). Vision Changes: Typography for aging audiences. Retrieved from https://www.marketing-partners.com/conversations2/vision-changes-typography-for-aging-audiences

Probert, O. (2017). Disability access the focus of draft guide. Retrieved  2017from https://www.railexpress.com.au/disability-access-the-focus-of-draft-guide/

Queensland Government. (2014).  Disability Action Plan Improving Access. Retrieved form file:///C:/Users/Owner/Downloads/disabilityactionplan2014.pdf

Queensland Government. (2017). Wheelchairs and mobility scooters: A guide for safe travel in Queensland. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Owner/Downloads/pdf_safe_travel_wheelchairs_mobility_scooters.pdf

Rajé, F. (2003). The impact of transport on social exclusion processes with specific emphasis on road user charging. Transport Policy, 10(4), 321-338. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967070X03000386. doi:http://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-070X(03)00038-6

Rodrigue, Jean-Paul, Notteboom, Theo, Shaw, Jon. (2013).  The Sage handbook of Transport Studies. SAGE: London

S. Adam Brasel, James Gips, Tablets, touchscreens, and touchpads: How varying touch interfaces trigger psychological ownership and endowment, In Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 24, Issue 2, 2014, Pages 226-233, ISSN 1057-7408, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2013.10.003. Retrieved rom http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1057740813000934

Scott metals Pty Ltd. (2017). steel sheet metal. Retrieved from https://www.scottmetals.com.au/sheet

Transurban. (2016).  the transport revolution 2020s: the decade of the transport revolution. Retrieved from  https://connectedcities.transurban.com/news/the-transport-revolutionHutton, B. (2013). Planning Sustainable Transport. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

 Velho, R., Holloway, C., Symonds, A., & Balmer, B. (2016). The Effect of Transport Accessibility on the Social Inclusion of Wheelchair Users: A Mixed Method Analysis. Social Inclusion, 4(3), 24-35. Retrieved from http://qut.summon.serialssolutions.com/2.0.0/link/0/eLvHCXMwnV1LT9wwELYKvVRCpS_E8pB8aW9ZNnHsOFxgqYp62UtVzpbtsdtUq13YRwX_npm8YEHl0GuckRLNZOabycw3jIlsOEqe-ASvBaA3hghETiKk1RaBAwhZpCXIGJ7U3867SkGj7c5J1p4b5p6K5icp-latJUaYs-ubhNZI0e_WdqfGFnuNUCalHr9J9uOh6CIowKq2Ab5QuTxZVsO_eSWGuc43QlPN4L8JO2lOZL18FH4ud1nXD9UVw6bPpg2e0zv-91u9Y29bmMrHjV29Z6_C7AM76Kdb-BfezPXyhmbk7iP7gwbHGy5kPo-8J03n43olY9OEe8fnM46Qs5NG7zRdU72ORDAuhKn_basFv6IZ0FM-5pPqNgCf1GuueUeg8oldXX77-fV70i5ySDxNnyRSFT4IrULpMhdkBkphnuR1GZUVQoIIBSD0iKNYBG9tDJkn4jGfopU4qbXYYzuWGv5nq3owEPYZ1w5Eqa3F5ADyVEcXwJWYq3qwTugsDNjnTpnmuiHuMJTwkNLNsjKkdINKH7AL0nR_D9Ft1xfmi1-m_XqNA5XZkSoRDRZ5wAgeCp86AVJALn2EATvutGmsoxqVXy3Ngy7_fV6OJKK0ATvqz1sfsim-39he_5QIepUqEV8dvCx5yN4gwmtrRkdse7VYh-N6pvUeGLAe5Q. doi:10.17645/si.v4i3.484

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

Figure 6: The common cognitive constraints that the participants encounter during travel and how many have undergone surgery that affect some of the activities that they do.

 

Figure 7: Public transport trips and common mode of transport

 

Figure 15: Interfaces for buying tickets

Plan Journey

 

Figure 17: .

 

Top Up Go-Card

 

Figure 20: .

 

Figure 23: XLO Bus Stop Dimensions

 

Figure 24: XLO Bus stop

 

Figure 25: XLO Bus stop technical drawing of components

 

 

Figure 26: XLO Bus stop technical drawing of components

 

Figure 27: XLO Bus stop technical drawing of components

 

Figure 28: XLO Bus stop technical drawing of components

 

Figure 29: XLO Bus stop technical drawing of components

 

Figure 30: XLO Bus stop technical drawing of components

 

Figure 31: XLO Bus stop technical drawing of components

 

Figure 32: XLO Bus stop technical drawing of components

 

 

Interview Transcripts

Participant 1

Age: 75, female, lives in Ipswich

Health: Overall health is good, cannot walk too far due to knee constraints

 

Interviewer: How often do you take public transport? 

Participant 1: Once a week

I: What is usually the purpose for travel?

P1: I go to bowling, once a week or three times a week and sometimes take the car. I get off the bus and walk down to bowling club. If need to go to the airport, catch the train at Ipswich to the central station, then change to Airport train, need to drive to the train station. The train station is about 2km, can walk but there is a big hill when coming back home.

I: What are the times you normally catch public transport?

P1:7-7:30 am, because the game starts, we have to be there at 8:30.

I: What are needs when travelling?

P1: I Use my walking stick, usually for the bus trips

I: Do you understand the information and signs that are displayed at stations?

P1: Yes, I do, read all the information, which bus goes which route and what time

I: How long do you usually spend at stations?

P1: Sometimes 15, 10minutes, sometimes half an hour, because when coming home I have to wait there

I: Do you feel safe when taking public transport?

P1: Yes

I: What would you change with the public transport system works? Would this want to make you take public transport more often?

P1: No problem, we have enough space at waiting areas, very convenient. Change buses to have less or no steps on buses. Go card system is good. Need to have pusher access or wheelchair access in this area, no steps on the buses.

 

Participant 2

Age: 80, male, lives in Ipswich

Health: Operation in both knees

 

I: How often do you take public transport?

P2: Sometimes when I need to go shopping, when I need to visit Roma St parkland, so I take public transport bus and train. Once a week. 1-3 times a week

P2: In Leichhardt area, the step is not comfortable for us on the bus. I have had both knee operations, I use every time pusher, when I go to public transport I put my pusher in the carrier and then I climb. Sometimes the bus make trouble, because it has a step, and sometimes a problem with my knee, so I hold the side rail and sometimes when I go to sit, the bus is moving, the driver is moving the bus, sometimes I have a problem to sit. I use my go card, it is no problem, sometimes I go by train.

I: What is usually the purpose of travel?

P2: Sometimes when need to go shopping, Roma Street parkland- bus and train once a week. Sometimes catch the train. On the weekend, on the rail bus, it’s difficult to get on and off the bus, because if the rail bus when the train line is blocked from one station to another station we have to take the rail bus. It is more difficult for the old people. For myself it is very difficult sometimes the bus does not come down, sometimes step problem, sometimes crowd, sometimes the bus stands at a distance, we walk fast and the checker says to come quickly come quick and one time we missed the train. Rail bus is difficult to get on has no low floor. The bus does not come down, the crowd stands at a distance, need to walk fast, because can miss the bus or train. So, these are the problems that are happening because we are old because we can’t walk far and is very difficult.

P1: when I was sick I went to the bathroom the bus went and the lady, the checker asked if there is anyone else the station master said no. sometimes we don’t get notified if we have to take the rail bus.  When we sit on the train then they tell you to get off at Corinda station then walk up to catch the bus to Roma station. Then have to take the steps when getting off, because the bus dropped them off on the main road, had to walk far to the gardens. On the weekends, we don’t always use public transport because of this.

I: What are the times you normally catch public transport?

P2: When I go shopping so I catch bus 9:30 am, when I go to Roma St parkland station I get earlier 8 o’clock. Twice a month I go to Roma St parkland, because of the flower garden.

P1: Use to catch the train at the entrance, but now have to walk very far, but we complain

P2: Our complain is that the small train in Roma St parkland is rounding parkland flower garden, it is far from the entrance when we go by the lift, we go up, there is a kiosk, coffee shop, from there it is nearly 500 m, the people walking there and the small train standing. That it mostly affects the old people

P1:  they are picking and dropping off at the same place before whenever you want to get off you can. Now you have to walk far.

P2: that is the most difficult. I am so angry and I complained to them.

I: Do you feel like you can understand the information and signs that are displayed and provided at stations?

P2: Yes, understand info/ signs. Use go card- no problem. Checkers don’t care much about passengers (at Corinda station)- miscommunication, don’t know if there are elderly waiting. Sometimes don’t know if need to change platforms or must catch a rail bus. They don’t’ tell where bus/ train stops are located and sometimes there are long steps to take after getting off.

I: Do you feel safe when taking public transport?

P2: Yeah, In Leichhardt is safe, the public transport is safe because every 15 minutes can get a bus here, holiday time half an hour. Every half an hour we can get a bus.

P1: school buses are separate, so it’s not always full. The 9 o’clock bus students do catch the bus with the public, so can be full that time.

I: What would you change with the public transport system works? Would this want to make you take public transport more often?

P2: Fair has to be dropped because we are pensioners the people who want to enjoy their lives, sometimes the fare goes up and it is difficult for us. Have Wheelchair/ pusher access at the front of bus (for the Ipswich area), fare should be dropped for pensioners- want to enjoy life more, when fare sometimes go up becomes difficult to afford

 

Participant 3

Age: 90, male, lives in Ipswich

Health: problem with vision (cataracts), hearing problems (needs hearing aids), need a walking stick or walker, heart pacer

 

I: How often do you take public transport?

P3: 3 times a week, unless need to go to the doctor

I: What is usually the purpose for travel?  

P3: Shopping, and medical appointments. Catch the Cody bus to Materhill hospital. Needs a letter for the doctor to sign which arranges the bus, usually would have to pay $10, but is free. Get heart pacer checked at the PA hospital, so catch the bus. Catch the normal bus to the Ipswich hospital.

I: What are the times you normally catch public transport?

P3: 6 am

I: Fundamental needs when travelling?

P3: Use a walker, can’t walk far and take wheelchair for shopping. Use a walking stick all the time.

I: Do you feel like you can understand the information and signs that are displayed and provided at stations?  P3: Can understand and have a good memory of the timetable

I: How long do you usually spend at stations/ bus stops/ platforms, when navigating and waiting?

P3: When catching the River Link wait for about 15 minutes and can take about an hour to wait for the bus and bus ride.

I: Do you feel safe when taking public transport?

P3: Bus drivers can be rude. Have fallen into the aisle on a moving bus, as some drive too fast. Sometimes feel a bit giddy, which makes it difficult to aboard the bus.

I: What would you change with the public transport system works? Would this want to make you take public transport more often?

P3: Change bus drivers. Ordinary drivers are good. Some drivers are awkward, some will help you and some won’t; sometimes they don’t put the ramp down, won’t do anything for you to get off or on even when you are carrying groceries or trolley is heavy.

 

Participant 4

Age: 63, female, lives in Ipswich

Health: Knee problems, hearing & memory problems

 

I: How often do you take public transport? 

P4:  times a week, unless need to go to the doctor

I: What is usually the purpose of travel?  

P4: Shopping, and medical appointments, usually catch the bus

I: What are the times you normally catch public transport?

P4: In the morning, usually 6 am

I: Fundamental needs when travelling?

P4: Need a walking stick, can’t walk too far, have trouble getting off bus is hard because of knee problems.

I: Do you feel like you can understand the information and signs that are displayed and provided at stations?

P4: I can understand, but can’t read well unless partner is there

I: Do you feel safe when taking public transport?

P4: yes

I: What would you change with the public transport system works? Would this want to make you take public transport more often?

P4: Change bus drivers and cost. Have more support when carrying things and a boarding bus, because have fallen into the aisle with groceries and need to hold onto something when the bus is moving.

 

Participant 5

Age: 70, male, lives in Acacia Ridge

Health: Healthy

 

I: How often do you take public transport?

P5: Roughly once every 3 months

I: What is usually the purpose of travel?

P5: Because difficult to park in the city, not enough parking and parking are expensive, find public transport cheaper, and bit easier, not cheaper.

I: What are the times you normally catch public transport?

P5: Mostly between 9-10am and return is maybe 2-3pm.

I: Fundamental needs when travelling?

P5: No, I don’t have any special needs when travelling

I: Do you feel like you can understand the information and signs that are displayed and provided at stations? P5: Yes, I do

I: Do you feel safe when taking public transport?

P5: Not always nowadays.

I: Why don’t you feel safe?

P5: Since we had a burning incident on the bus, I’m a bit frightened, a driver was burnt alive.

I: What would you change with the public transport system works? Would this want to make you take public transport more often?

P5: Change the timetable, now we get a bus every hourly from home to city and city to home. Off peak hours, so if that can be looked at, made every half hourly and it is expensive.

I: Do you encounter any problems?

P5: The waiting period is too long.

 

Participant 6

Age: 67, Female, Lives in Acacia Ridge

Health: Healthy

I: How often do you take public transport? 

P6: We don’t take it very frequently, when we want to go to the city, then we use public transport because to save parking, it’s easier because you don’t have to park in the city, find a parking and can be busy. And when we go and come from overseas we take public transport from gold coast airport to take the bus to train, then bus to our home. That’s once or twice a year.

I: What is usually the purpose of travel?

P6: Well just to visit the city. Or take visitors to the city showing around the city. From gold coast its coming back home.

I: What are the times you normally catch public transport?  

P6: Because we usually travel non-peak hours, so we get it fairly let, an hour in between. Because peak period is busy cos of school children.  

I: Fundamental needs when travelling?

P6: No

I: Do you feel like you can understand the information and signs that are displayed and provided at stations?

P6: Yes

I: Do you feel safe when taking public transport?

P6: Yes, well there was an incident that feared everybody, but we travel during the day time, anybody can throw fire at anybody

I: What would you change with the public transport system works? Would this want to make you take public transport more often?

P6: Public transport here is good, but is very expensive. And we should have transported more often. The government have a plan, that people don’t use their car, don’t park. If they provide more parking in the city that people won’t use public transport they will take their car, but if like overseas countries like Malaysia, Singapore they all use public transport, the transport is very cheap and there is no parking in the city. They have cars but can’t park in the city. So if it’s cheaper, more working class people will use public transport.

I: Is there any problems you encounter?

P6: No, we have never faced any problems.

 

Table 3: Observation data

Observations were taken of the elderly at various bus stations and platforms

PARTICIPANTS

OBSERVATIONS

1 Elderly women 

  • Was using a walker for support

  • Was running a bit late, needed to walk fast to let driver know was catching the bus

  • Used the walker to get on the bus

  • No one assisted- took a while to get on the bus, but driver waited for the passenger to be seated

2 Elderly man

  • Used railings to board the bus and sat at the front of the bus behind the driver

3 Elderly man

  • Used railings to board the bus and sat on the side front of the bus

  • Throughout the bus journey was holding the seat

4 Elderly couple

  • Used railings to get off the bus- bus waited for them to get off

  • Sat at the front of the bus- easier to get on and off for assistance

5 Elderly couple

  • Waiting- sitting down- the real-time sign lets them know when their bus comes

6 Elderly man

  • Wheelchair- driver turned the bus off to pull ramp down

7 Elderly women

  • Woman uses her trolley down first to get off the bus

8 Elderly man

  • Healthy elderly man did not have a problem getting off

9 Elderly man

  • standing to wait for his bus

10 Elderly women

  • when the bus is about to come stands up to wait for the incoming bus- walks slowly

11 Elderly man

  • with a walking stick is sitting- most are sitting down

12 Elderly women

  • got on the bus using her trolley to step up slowly.

  • Used her trolley to get off the bus

  • Used the lift instead of the stairs- waited for a while

13 Elderly women

  • Used to the side railings on the bus door to get onto the bus, slowly

14 Elderly man

  • Used the side railings on the bus door to get onto the bus

  • Used the side railings again to get off the bus

15 Elderly women

  • Used railings to board bus and to move to sit down with her bag

  • Used railings to get off the bus

  • Took the lift

16 Elderly women

  • Used the lift on the platform, used a walking stick

17 Elderly man

  • Was also waiting for the lift, had a bag/ trolley with him

18 Elderly man

  • Used railings to get off the bus

19 Elderly women

  • Walks along the platform while using a walking stick checking if the bus

  • Sits down after a while

20 Elderly women

  • Waited for the bus for a while.

  • Had someone pushing her to the bus

  • The bus driver pulled down the ramp down to board

21 Elderly couple

  • Used the railings to get off the bus

  • After getting off, they were on the phones- checking the next transport service?

22 Elderly man

  • Used railings to board

23 Elderly women

  • Walked slowly to board bus

  • Used railings

Slide 1 TITLE: Improving mobility access for the disabled elderly in the future XLO

In the next two-decades in Queensland it is expected that there will be one in five people aged over 65. Due to this, there will be a growth in mobility demand. It is vital to have an effective and affordable public transport system to ensure access for the disabled elderly to meet their basic transport needs. However, it is an expensive task, which can impact thousands of people every day.

Slide 2 Mobility and Disabled Elderly

From the research conducted mobility accessibility, cognitive and physical impairment and social exclusion are the main factors that influence the disabled elderly’s ability to access and use public transport services. As seen in the customer journey map, half of their experience is negative, as they cannot walk far, need stability or wheelchair assistance when boarding and have challenges with navigating.

SLIDE 3 Aim (design proposal)

So, the aim is to design a product/service to help the disabled elderly embark and disembark transport vehicles easily. The design objectives are to assist the physically disabled elderly when boarding transport vehicles, have Communication and accurate real-time information readily available if they need assistance and utilise advanced technology.

SLIDE 4 XLO design solution/ system/ service

The design solution is XLO. XLO is an interactive screen attached to walls at large stations and smart bus stops in suburban streets, in 2030. Users can scan their go-card, access travel updates and top-up their go-card. XLO aims to help the disabled elderly to allow them to notify the driverless bus and transport staff that they need assistance embarking and disembarking the vehicle. This allows staff or the driverless bus to prepare wheelchair ramps and other services to help assist the users.

Slide 5 Scenario

The design fiction video will show a user’s journey and how XLO is used to improve their transport experience.

 

 

 

 

Slide 6 XLO Screen Interface

So as seen in the video the main point of interaction is the screen interface. The screen interface also has the options of plan journey, and updating profile. Decals and audio are utilised to help clearly understand the instructions given when using the interfaces.

As the disabled elderly will experience a decline in motor skills with age, the screen involves finger tapping and having familiar icons that easily convey obvious information. Each interface has information that are short, clear and concise, so it is not overwhelming and prevents cognitive overload and the colour scheme helps to distinguish different features.

Slide 7 XLO Smart Bus Stop  

To accommodate the disabled elderly users to easily access the smart bus stop, the interactive screens are at 1 metre above the ground to align with users who are on wheelchairs, point of view. The width of the shelter is 1.5 meters to fit a wheelchair user and 3 metres long for other users to sit down. The signage is orange to help identify the screen interface and location, as it is a contrasting colour to the rest of the stop.

The materials that are used for the bus stop are powder coated steel, toughen glass to protect the screen interfaces and gortex fabric to prevent water and dust to go inside the screens and audio components.

Slide 8 Product Ecosystem

So, as shown in the product ecosystem, there are many products & services involved to make the transport service convenient. All the products and services are connected to the internet of things and the information goes to a cloud. This is where driverless buses and transport staff are notified for any assistance required at an upcoming stop, using real-time information.

Slide 9 Future of Public Transport

Utilising advanced technology, XLO helps the disabled elderly users to be able to have sufficient service to help them embark and disembark buses easily. As majority of the features are designed for the aged disabled needs, these features can also be catered for the general public and make their public transport experience more reliable, personalised and to create a sustainable transport future.

Slide 1 TITLE: Improving mobility access for the disabled elderly in the future XLO

In the next two-decades in Queensland it is expected that there will be one in five people aged over 65. Due to this, there will be a growth in mobility demand. It is vital to have an effective and affordable public transport system to ensure access for the disabled elderly to meet their basic transport needs. However, it is an expensive task, which can impact thousands of people every day.

Slide 2 Mobility and Disabled Elderly

From the research conducted mobility accessibility, cognitive and physical impairment and social exclusion are the main factors that influence the disabled elderly’s ability to access and use public transport services. As seen in the customer journey map, half of their experience is negative, as they cannot walk far, need stability or wheelchair assistance when boarding and have challenges with navigating.

SLIDE 3 Aim (design proposal)

So, the aim is to design a product/service to help the disabled elderly embark and disembark transport vehicles easily. The design objectives are to assist the physically disabled elderly when boarding transport vehicles, have Communication and accurate real-time information readily available if they need assistance and utilise advanced technology.

SLIDE 4 XLO design solution/ system/ service

The design solution is XLO. XLO is an interactive screen attached to walls at large stations and smart bus stops in suburban streets, in 2030. Users can scan their go-card, access travel updates and top-up their go-card. XLO aims to help the disabled elderly to allow them to notify the driverless bus and transport staff that they need assistance embarking and disembarking the vehicle. This allows staff or the driverless bus to prepare wheelchair ramps and other services to help assist the users.

Slide 5 Scenario

The design fiction video will show a user’s journey and how XLO is used to improve their transport experience.

 

 

 

 

Slide 6 XLO Screen Interface

So as seen in the video the main point of interaction is the screen interface. The screen interface also has the options of plan journey, and updating profile. Decals and audio are utilised to help clearly understand the instructions given when using the interfaces.

As the disabled elderly will experience a decline in motor skills with age, the screen involves finger tapping and having familiar icons that easily convey obvious information. Each interface has information that are short, clear and concise, so it is not overwhelming and prevents cognitive overload and the colour scheme helps to distinguish different features.

Slide 7 XLO Smart Bus Stop  

To accommodate the disabled elderly users to easily access the smart bus stop, the interactive screens are at 1 metre above the ground to align with users who are on wheelchairs, point of view. The width of the shelter is 1.5 meters to fit a wheelchair user and 3 metres long for other users to sit down. The signage is orange to help identify the screen interface and location, as it is a contrasting colour to the rest of the stop.

The materials that are used for the bus stop are powder coated steel, toughen glass to protect the screen interfaces and gortex fabric to prevent water and dust to go inside the screens and audio components.

Slide 8 Product Ecosystem

So, as shown in the product ecosystem, there are many products & services involved to make the transport service convenient. All the products and services are connected to the internet of things and the information goes to a cloud. This is where driverless buses and transport staff are notified for any assistance required at an upcoming stop, using real-time information.

Slide 9 Future of Public Transport

Utilising advanced technology, XLO helps the disabled elderly users to be able to have sufficient service to help them embark and disembark buses easily. As majority of the features are designed for the aged disabled needs, these features can also be catered for the general public and make their public transport experience more reliable, personalised and to create a sustainable transport future.

The interactive interfaces can be accessed here: https://projects.invisionapp.com/share/DGDN2K75Z#/screens/255023274

 

Check out my fellow designers (graduates) work here:

https://www.4thfloorexhibition.com/

 

Our final year designs were showcased at the QUT Design Festival 2017:

https://nowalls.qut.edu.au/kaleidoscope/design/

bottom of page